Geography of Mexico: cities, borders, islands and time zone

September 17, 2019

Are there mountains in Mexico? Which are its bordering countries? Discover all about the geography of Mexico and organize your trip!

Entry to Uxmal pyramid in Mexico

Mexico borders north the United States of America, and south Guatemala and Belize. Its coasts extend for 10,000 km and enclose the Gulf of Mexico; they are lapped by the Caribbean Sea to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. A large part of its territory is characterized by mountains, except for the Yucatan Peninsula and the coasts of the Gulf of Mexico.

Some peaks of its mountain ranges are higher than 4.000 - 5.000 m, such as Citlaltépletl (Pico de Orizaba), which is 5,700 m high. The capital, Mexico City, is located on the Mexican Plateau, which is situated between Sierra de Madre Occidental and Oriental, the main mountain chains. Rio Bravo is the Mexican river that defines the border with United States.

The islands of Mexico

Many Mexican islands stud the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean.
Isla Mujeres, facing Cancun, is surely one of the most renowned. Also Cozumel, Isla Contoy, Tiburón Island and Holbox are beautiful famous islands, as well as Revillagigedo Islands, Islas Marías, Guadalupe Island and Isla del Carmen. Mexican islands together cover an area larger than 5,000 km2.

Mexico time zones

Because of its extension, the country covers three different time zones:

  • Central Time Zone (CTS): UTC/GMT -6 hour. It includes: Mexico City, Cancun, Yucatan, Chiapas and the area located south of Chihuahua.
  • Mountain Time Zone (MST): UTC/GMT -7 hour. It includes: Baja California Sur, Chihuahua, Nayarit, Sinaloa and Sonora.
  • Pacific Time Zone (PST): UTC/GMT -8 hour. Only Baja California Norte is oficially in this area.

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